What first graders should know


  • Count by ones, twos, fives, and tens to 100 Write, order, and compare numbers to 99 (e.g. finishes sequence 23, __ , 25)
  • Understand concepts of addition and subtraction
  • Add and subtract using numbers 1 through 20 
  • Choose correct operation (+ or -) in a problem-solving situation
  • Understand place value, simple fractions, and measurement
    Shapes, Colors, and Patterns— 
  • Identify common geometric figures (e.g. square, circle, rectangle, triangle)
  • Organize, represent, and compare data on simple bar and picture graphs and charts
  • Classify and sort objects using attributes (e.g. size, color, and shape)
  • Create patterns and sequence objects and numbers (e.g. can complete simple patterns of numbers or objects)
    Time, Money, and Measurement— 
  • Identify and know the value of a penny, nickel, and dime and different combinations of coins that equal the same value
  • Read a clock face to tell time to the nearest half-hour
  • Understand place value, simple fractions, and measurement
  • Compare length, width, and volume of two or more objects
  • Understand standard tools of measurement (e.g. rulers, cups, and scales)



  • Listen to and enjoy a variety of literature
  • Read, comprehend, interpret, and evaluate age-appropriate books and stories
  • Identify setting, character, and main idea and retell stories and events using correct sequence (i.e. beginning, middle, and end)
  • Distinguish between fantasy stories and real stories
  • Understand how print is organized and read
  • Match spoken words with printed ones
  • Read unknown words using picture and story clues and/or knowledge of phonics
    Letters and Words—
  • Identify letters, words, and sentences
  • Know all letters and recognize upper- and lower-case
  • Identify commonly used words
  • Recognize “sight words” (e.g. of, was, do, and, the)
  • Observe simple punctuation, such as periods, when reading aloud
  • Change beginning, middle, and end sounds to make new words (e.g. cat, sat, mat)
  • Begin to generate and organize ideas for writing (i.e. brainstorm)
  • Include appropriate facts and details in written stories
  • Begin to use correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation in written work and begin to edit completed work for these conventions
  • Use writing to communicate for a variety of purposes
    Phonics, Sounds, Speaking and Listening—
  • Correctly clap syllables in words and sentences
  • Sound out letters and words when reading
  • Blend beginning, middle, and ending sounds to recognize and read words
  • Use speaking and listening skills to communicate effectively